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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 40-44
 

A review of permissible limits of drinking water


1 Department of Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Anesthesia, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication13-Aug-2012

Correspondence Address:
Avinash Puri
Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5278.99696

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  Abstract 

Water is one of the prime necessities of life. We can hardly live for a few days without water. In a man's body, 70-80% is water. Cell, blood, and bones contain 90%, 75%, and 22% water, respectively. The general survey reveals that the total surface area of earth is 51 crore km 2 out of which 36.1 crore km 2 is covered sea. In addition to this, we get water from rivers, lakes, tanks, and now on hills. In spite of such abundance, there is a shortage of soft water in the world. Physicochemical parameter of any water body plays a very important role in maintaining the fragile ecosystem that maintains various life forms. Present research paper deals with various water quality parameter, chlorides, dissolved oxygen, total iron, nitrate, water temperature, pH, total phosphorous, fecal coli form bacteria, and adverse effect of these parameters on human being.


Keywords: Dissolved oxygen, drinking waters, fecal coliform bacteria, parameters, pesticides


How to cite this article:
Kumar M, Puri A. A review of permissible limits of drinking water. Indian J Occup Environ Med 2012;16:40-4

How to cite this URL:
Kumar M, Puri A. A review of permissible limits of drinking water. Indian J Occup Environ Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Dec 6];16:40-4. Available from: https://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?2012/16/1/40/99696



  Introduction Top


Drinking water is one of the basic needs of life and essential for survival. Still more than one billion people all over the world do not have ready access to an adequate and safe water supply and more than 800 million of those unsaved live in rural areas. In India, ground water is being used as raw water for 85% public water supply. (According to world health report 1998)water supply varies widely in terms of region and country. In 1970s, of the approximately 2.5 billion people in developing world, only 38% has safe drinking water. At the beginning of the 1980s, water supply coverage was 75% in urban areas and 46% in rural areas. In developing countries, 75% of the population had access to water supply. So they are always prone to loss of their lives or cost a big toll to save themselves from the occurrence of different water-borne disease. Water contamination due to pathogenic agents, chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides water disinfectants, and thereby product as a consequence of industrial and agricultural activities leaching from soil, rocks, and atmospheric deposition and other human activities has become a hazard to human health in several regions of world.


  Materials and Methods Top


Permissible limits for drinking water quality according to American Public Health Association (APHA), World Health Organization (WHO), Indian Standard Institution (ISI), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) are compared in this review article. The following method are used for test water quality. [1]

Dissolved oxygen

For dissolved oxygen "Winkler's method with azide modification" is being followed (APHA, 1998; part 4500 - OC, p. 4-131).

Free carbon dioxide

Free carbon dioxide is being determined by NaOH titration method (APHA, 1998; part 4500-CO 2 , C, p. 4-31).

Chlorides

For the determination of Chlorides "Argentometric method" is being applied (APHA, 1998; part 4500-Cl B, p. 4-67).

Nitrates

For the estimation of nitrates "Brucine method" is being used (Trivedi and Goel, 1984, p. 59).

Phosphates

For the estimation of phosphates "Stannous chloride method" is being applied (APHA, 1998; part 4500 - P D, p. 4-145).

Silicates

Determination of silicates is being done by "Molybdosilicate method" (APHA, 1998; part 4500-SiO 2 C, p. 4-156).

Sulfates

Determination of sulphates is being done by "Turbidimetric method" (APHA, 1998, part 4500 - SO4 2- E, p. 4-178).

Total alkalinity

Total alkalinity of the sample is being determined by standard titrimetric method.

Phenolphthalein alkalinity and methyl orange alkalinity (APHA, 1998, part 2320 B-CO 2 , D., p. 2-27).

Total hardness and calcium hardness

These are being determined by "EDTA titrimetric method" (APHA, 1998, part 2340, C, p. 2-36).

Pesticides estimation method

Pesticides estimation has been done with gas liquid chromatography. Gas liquid chromatography is a partition chromatography in which stationary phase is liquid and mobile phase is gas where partition of compound takes place between two phases. The requirement of GLC is that compound or its decomposed stable product should be volatile at the working (column) temperature. The column, oven, and the detector are three important components of gas chromatography. The column is the heart of gas chromatography. It is used to hold the separating media in a fixed position relative to a constant carrier gas flow through media. It is composed of long narrow, metal, or glass tube filled with a packing material consisting of liquid stationary phase coated on a solid support .The liquid phase should have a boiling point more than over the working temperature (200-300°C). The stationary phase is mostly organic silicon.


  Discussion Top


pH

pH is a measure of the acidic or basic (alkaline) nature of a solution. The concentration of the hydrogen ion [H + ] activity in a solution determines the pH. Mathematically this is expressed as:

pH = -log [ H + ]

The pH value is the negative power to which 10 must be raised to equal the hydrogen ion concentration. A pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 appears to provide protection for the life of fresh water fish and bottom dwelling invertebrates. The [Table 1] gives some special effects of pH on fish and aquatic life.
Table 1: The methods of analysis of different parameters of water quality

Click here to view


Temperature

Water temperature regulates the metabolism of the aquatic ecosystem. High water temperature stress aquatic ecosystem by reducing the ability of water to hold essential dissolved gases like oxygen often summer head can cause fish kills in water bodies because high temperature reduce available oxygen in the water.

Hardness

It is defined as the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations and is a measure of the capacity of water to precipitate soap

Alkalinity

Alkalinity is primarily due to carbonate, bicarbonate and hydroxide contents. It is used in the interpretations and control of water and waste water processes.

Dissolved Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen analysis measures the amount of gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) dissolved in an aqueous solution. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air, by aeration (rapid movement) and as a waste product of photosynthesis. Environmental impact of total dissolved solids gas concentration in water should not exceed 110% (above 13-14 mg/l). Concentration above this level can be harmful to aquatic life. Fish in waters containing excessive dissolved gases may suffer from "gas bubble disease"; however, this is a very rare occurrence. The bubbles or emboli block the flow of blood through blood vessels causing death. External bubbles emphysema can also occur and be seen on fins, on skin and on other tissue. Aquatic invertebrate are also affected by 'gas bubble disease,'' but at levels higher than those lethal to fish. Adequate dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality

Nitrate and Nitrite

Nitrate and Nitrite are naturally occurring ions that are part of nitrogen cycle. In general, vegetables are the main source of nitrate intake when level in drinking water is below 10 mg/l. When nitrate level in drinking water exceeds 50 mg/l, drinking water becomes the main source of total nitrate intake. The presence of nitrate indicates an old contamination provided nitrites are absent.

High level of nitrate in drinking water due to excessive use of agriculture fertilizers, decayed vegetable water, domestic effluent, sewage disposal industrial discharges, leachable from refuse dumps, atmospheric and atmospheric precipitation has become a serious problem (Makhijani and Manoharan 1999) [2]

Excess concentration of nitrate causes disease. Methemoglobinemia oxygen transport depends on the maintenance of intra cellular hemoglobin in the reduced (Fe 2+ ) state. When hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin, the heme iron becomes (Fe 3+ ) and is incapable of binding oxygen. Methemoglobinemia is suspected in any cyanotic patient with no evidence of heart and lung disease of cyanosis is due to decreased oxygen saturation.

Nitrites can produce a serious condition in fish called "brown blood disease" Nitrites also react directly with hemoglobin in human blood and other warm-blooded animals to produce methemoglobin. Methemoglobin destroys the ability of red blood cell to transport oxygen. This condition is especially serious in babies under three months of age. It causes a condition known as methemoglobinemia or "blue baby disease". Water with nitrite levels exceeding 1.0 mg/l should not be used for feeding babies Nitrite/nitrogen levels below 90 mg/l and nitrate levels below 0.5 mg/l seem to have no effect on warm water fish.

Chlorides

Chlorides are the inorganic compound resulting from the combination of the chlorine gas with metal. Some common chlorides include sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ). Chlorine alone as (Cl 2 ) highly toxic, and it is often used a disinfectant. In combination with a metal such as sodium, it becomes essential for life. Small amounts of chlorides are required for normal cell functions in plant and animal life.

Environmental impact of chloridesare not usually harmful to human health; however, the sodium part of the table salt has been linked to heart and kidney diseases. Sodium chloride may impact a salty taste at 250 mg/l; however, calcium or magnesium chloride is usually detected by taste until levels of 1000 mg/l are reached. Public drinking water standards require chloride level not to exceed 250 mg/l. Chlorides may get into surface water from several sources including: rocks contain chlorides, agricultural run-off, waste water from industries, oil well wastes, and effluent waste water from waste water treatment plants. Chlorides can corrode metals and affect the taste of food products. Chlorides can contaminate fresh water streams and lakes. Fish and aquatic communities cannot survive in high level of chlorides. Therefore, water that is used in industry or proceeds for any use has a recommended maximum chloride level.

Fluoride [3]

According to WHO 1984 and Indian standard drinking water specification 1991 the maximum permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 ppm and highest desirable limit is 1.0 ppm. Fluoride concentrations above 1.5 ppm in drinking water cause dental fluorosis and much higher concentration skeletal fluorosis. Low concentration (approximately 0.5 ppm) provides protection against dental caries. India is among the 23 nations around the globe where health problems occur due to the consumption of fluoride contamination water and the extent of fluoride contamination in water varies from 1.0 to 400 mg/l. In India, 20 million people are severely affected by fluorosis and 40 million people are exposed to risk of endemic fluorosis (Chinoy J. N. 1991). In India fluoride endemic states one Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, and Delhi.

Arsenic

Arsenic contamination in drinking water has been reported in different region of the world mainly in china (WHO1996). In India, it had been found to be wide spread in different region of the West Bengal due to dissolution of arsenic containing bed rocks. WHO has prescribed a provisional guideline value of As 10 μg/l in drinking water and according to India standard drinking water specification 1991, the highest desirable limit is 50 μg/l and no relaxation for maximum permissible level. Early clinical symptoms of acute intoxication include abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, muscular pain, and with flushing of the skin. These symptoms are often followed by numbers and tingling of the extremities, muscular cramping and the appearance of a popular erythematous rash.

Chronic exposure due to arsenic contaminated drinking water includes dermal lesions, peripheral neuropathy, skin cancer, and peripheral vascular disease. Major dermatological signs are nelano-keratosis, melanosis, spotted and diffuse keratosis, leucomelanosis, and dorsal keratosis (Saha et al 1999). [4]

Lead [5]

From a drinking water perspective, the almost universal use of lead compounds in plumbing fittings and as solder in water distribution systems is important. [5] Lead pipes may be used in older distribution systems and plumbing. Lead is present in tap water to some extent as a result of its dissolution from natural sources but primarily from household plumbing systems in which the pipes, solder, fittings, or service connections to homes contain lead. PVC pipes also contain lead compounds that can be leached from them and result in high lead concentration in drinking water. According to India standard drinking water specification 1991, highest desirable limit of lead in drinking water is 0.05 ppm and no relaxation for maximum permissible limit. Provisional tolerable weekly intake of 25 μg/l lead per kg body wt or 93.5 μg/kg body wt/day for all age group was established (WHO 1993). Lead is a cumulative general poison and associated with several health hazards like anemia (Moore. 1988), [5] reproductive effects (Wildt et al. 1983) [6] (Cullen et al. 1984). [7]

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is one of the key elements necessary for growth of plants and animals. Phosphorus in elemental form is very toxic and is subject to bioaccumulation. Phosphate PO4 3- formed from this element. Phosphate exists in three forms: Orthophosphate, met-pho sulfate, and organically bound phosphate. Each compound contains phosphorus in a different chemical formula orthoform are produced by natural processes and are found in sewage. Poly forms are used for treating boiler water and in detergents in water they change into the ortho form organic phosphates are important in nature. Their occurrence may result from the breakdown of organic pesticides which contain phosphates. They may exit in solution, as particles, loose fragments, or in the bodies of aquatic organisms.

Rainfall can cause varying amounts of phosphates to wash from farm soils into nearby waterways. Phosphate will stimulate the growth of plankton and aquatic plants which provide food for fish this increased growth may cause an increase in the fish population and improve the overall water quality. However, if an excess of phosphate enters the water way, algal and aquatic plants will grow wildly, choke up the water way, and use up large amounts of oxygen. This condition is known as Eutrophication or over-fertilization of receiving waters. The rapid growth of aquatic vegetation can cause the death and decay of vegetation- and quality life because of the decrease in dissolved oxygen levels. Phosphates are not toxic to people or animals unless they are present in very high levels. Digestive problem could occur from extremely high level of phosphate.

Iron [8]

Iron is the most abundant element, by weight, in the earth's crust. Iron is the second most abundant metal in earth's crust. It is an essential element in human nutrition. The minimum daily requirement of iron is ranged from about 10 to 50 mg/day (FAO/WHO 1988)

Natural water contains variable amounts of iron despite its universal distribution and abundance. Iron in ground water is normally present in the ferrous or bivalent from (Fe ++ ) or insoluble Iron urban exposure to air. Iron is a race elements required by both plants and animal. It is a vital oxygen transport mechanism in the blood all vertebrate and some invertebrate animals.

Iron in water may be present in varying qualities depending upon the geological area and other chemical component of the water way. Ferrous Fe ++ and ferric F +++ irons are primary forms of concern in the aquatic environment other forms may be in either organic or inorganic waste water streams. The ferrous form Fe 2+ can persist in water void of dissolved oxygen and usually originates from ground water or ---- that are pumped or drained. Iron in domestic water supply system, stains laundry and porcelain. It appears to be more of a nuisance than a potential health hazard. Taste thresholds of iron in water 0.1 mg/l for ferrous iron and 0.2 mg/l ferric Iron, giving a bitter or an astringent taste. Water used in industrial processes usually contain less than 0.2 mg/l iron. Black or Brown swaps water may contain iron concentration of several mg/l in the presence or the absence of dissolved oxygen, but this iron form has little effect on aquatic life. The current aquatic life standard is 1.0 mg/l based on toxic effects.

Microbiological Parameter

Fecal coliform bacteria

Fecal coliform bacteria are a collection of relatively harmless microorganisms that live in large number in the intestines of the warm and cold blooded animals. They aid in the digestion of food. A specific subgroups of this collection is the fecal coliform bacteria, the most common member being  Escherichia More Details coli. These organisms may be repeated from the total coliform group by their ability to grow at elevated temperatures and are associated only with the fecal material of warm blooded animals.

The presence of fecalcoliform bacteria in aquatic environmental indicate that the water has been contaminated with the fecal material of man or other animals. At the time this occurred, the source water may have been contaminated by pathogens or disease-producing bacteria or viruses which can also exist in fecal material. Some water-borne pathogenic diseases include typhoid fever, viral, and bacterial gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. The presence of fecal contamination is an indicator that a potential health risk exists for individuals exposed to this water.

Pesticides

Most commonly used Pesticides which have been detected in drinking water, ground water well water and surface water in many countries are alchlor (Ritter 1990), aldicarb (Heibseh 1988) [9] Carbofuran (Ritter 1990). [10]


  Conclusion Top


It was found that all parameters of permissible limit of drinking water were not set for all by different agencies i.e. (APHA), (WHO), (ISI), (CPCB), and (ICMR). Public health officers, doctors, and researchers follow these norms. However, there is a bias in permissible limit of drinking water quality set by different agencies (APHA, 1998; part 4500 - OC, p. 4-131). Permissible limits for drinking water parameters such as pH, temperature, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite, chlorides, fluoride, arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, phosphorus, iron and microbiological parameter like of fecal coliform bacteria are compared for different agencies in the [Table 2] and [Table 3]. [11] The permissible limits of different parameter set by different agencies do not show uniformity. pH (mg/l): 6.85-9.2 show uniformity set by different agencies, Turbidity (NTU): given by ISI 10NTU, ICMR 25NTU, CPCB 10 NTU, conductivity 200 mg/l and alkalinity 600 mg/l is given only central pollution controlboard not set up by USEPA, WHO, ISI, and ICMR, [12] Total hardness and Iron (mg/l): WHO 500, 0.1, ISI 300, 0.1, ICMR 600,1.0, CPCB 600, 1.0 but not set up by USEPA, there is a great difference in chlorides contents set by different agencies Chlorides (mg/l): USEPA250WHO200ISI250 ICMR 1000 CPCB 1000 nitrates and sulfates are much important parameters which show the status of water bodies nitrates show the trophic status and pollution in water quality. Nitrates and sulfates are not set by USEPA and WHO. Residual free chlorine (mg/l) 0.02 set up only by ISI, Calcium and magnesium (mg/l) WHO 75, 50 ISI 75, 30 ICMR 200 CPCB 200,100. Calcium and magnesium are significant to detect hardness of water, Copper (mg/l): USEPA 1.3, WHO 1.0, ISI0.05, ICMR 1.5, CPCB 1.5, Fluorides (mg /l): USEPA 4.0, WHO 1.5, ISI 0.6-1.2, ICMR 1.5, CPCB 1.5, Mercury mg/l:USEPA 0.001, WHO 0.002,ISI 0.001, ICMR 0.001, CPCB no relaxation,Mercury shows similarity with different agencies but no relaxation given by CPCB, Cadmium (mg/l):USEPA 0.005, WHO 0.005, ISI 0.01, ICMR 0.01, CPCB no relaxation, Selenium (mg/l):USEPA 0.05, WHO 0.01, CPCB no relaxation Arsenic (mg/l) USEPA 0.05, WHO 0.05,ISI 0.05, ICMR0.05, CPCB no relaxation Lead (mg/l): USEPA WHO 0.05 ISI 0.10 ICMR 0.05 CPCB no relaxation Zinc (mg/l): WHO 5.0,ISI 5.0, ICMR 0.10, CPCB 15.0, Chromium (mg/l): USEPA 0.1, ISI 0.5 CPCB no relaxation, E. coli (MPN/100 ml) CPCB no relaxation. E. coli shows water quality and pollution status but this permissible limit not given by different agencies. There is great confusion to the researcher, public health officers, and doctors to following the permissible limits when they do research. The WHO and MCI should fix the uniformity permissible which are helpful to the society.
Table 2: Permissible limits of drinking water quality

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Table 3: Permissible limits of pesticides in drinking water

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  References Top

1.APHA.Standard methods for the examination of water and waste\ water.20th ed. American Public Health Association, New York, 1998.   Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Makhijani SD, Manoharan A. Nitrate pollution problem in drinking water sources: Monitoring and surveillance. Paper presented in the workshop water quality field test kits for Arsenic, Fluoride and Nitrate held from 8-9 Sept. 1999 at ITRC, Lucknow.   Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Chinoy JN. Effects of fluoride on physiology of animals and human beings. Indian J Environ Toxico 1991;1:17-32.   Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Saha KC, Dikshit AK, Bandyopadhyay MA. A review of arsenic poisoning and its effect onhuman health. CritRev Environ Sci Technol 1999;29:281-313.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Moore MR. Haematological effects of lead. Sci Total Environ 1988;71:419-31.   Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Wildt K, Eliasson R, Borlin M. Effects of occupational exposure to lead on sperm and semen. In:Clarbson TW, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, editors. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of metals. Proceeding of joint meeting in Rochester, New York: Plenum press;1983. p. 279-300.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Cullen MR, Kayne RD, Robins JM. Endocrine andreproductive dysfunction in men a social with occupation inorganic lead intoxication. Arch Environ Health 1984;39:431-40.   Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.FAO/WHO. Requirement of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B12. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expend consultation Rome, Food and Agricultural organization of the united nations (FAO Food and Nutrition series No. 23), 1988.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hiebsch S. The occurrence of thirty five pesticides in Canadian drinking water and surface water. Ottawa, Canada, Department of National Healthand Welfare, Evironmental Health Directorate, 1988. Khandekar RN, Mishra UC. Environmental lead exposure of an urban Indian population. Sci Total Environ. 1984 Dec;40:269-78.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ritter WF. Pesticide contamination of ground water in the United States - A review. Environ Sci Health 1990;25:1-29.   Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Trivedi RK, Goel PK. Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution Studies. Karad: Environmental Publications; 1986.   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.WHO. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: Forty first report of joint FAO/WHO. Expert committee on food additives. Geneva world health organization.WHO technical report series No.837, 1993.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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24 Mechanisms of arsenic removal from simulated surface water based on As(III) retention on thiol chelating resins
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25 Spatiotemporal evaluation of hydrochemical facies and pesticide residues in the cardamom plantations of Southern Western Ghats, India
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26 The concentration of potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) in drinking water and non-carcinogenic risk assessment: A case study in Bandar Abbas, Iran
Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Zohreh Kamari, Vahid Ranaei, Zahra Pilevar, Mitra Akbari, Mashallah Moridi, Khaled Mohamed Khedher, Van Nam Thai, Yadolah Fakhri, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
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27 Synthesis of rare earth metal oxide nanoparticle for simultaneous removal of fluoride and As(III) from aqueous solution
Moumita Debroy, Mrinal Kanti Dolai, Trilochan Prasad Sahoo, Subrata Dasgupta, Mahesh Kumar Gagrai
Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2021; 12: 100512
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28 Continuous removal and recovery of metals from wastewater using inverse fluidized bed sulfidogenic bioreactor
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29 Evaluation of the aqueous Fe (II) ion sorption capacity of functionalized microcrystalline cellulose
C.O. Aniagor, E.S. Abdel-Halim, A. Hashem
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30 Novel insights into adsorption of heavy metal ions using magnetic graphene composites
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31 Recent developments in fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors based on schiff bases for metallic cations detection: A review
Sikandar Khan, Xiaojing Chen, Albandary Almahri, Esam S. Allehyani, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Munjed M. Ibrahim, Shujat Ali
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32 Light responsive, electrochemically dimerizable, capture and release device based on photochromic oxazine for nanomolar level detection of Hg2+ ions
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33 Production and environmental applications of gelatin-based composite adsorbents for contaminants removal: a review
Cesar Vinicus Toniciolli Rigueto, Mateus Torres Nazari, Lillian Ávila Massuda, Bruna Elisangela Pessini Ostwald, Jeferson Steffanello Piccin, Aline Dettmer
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34 Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Yamuna River, Delhi-NCR, using heavy metal pollution index and GIS
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35 Impact of some beverage industries on the physicochemical characteristics of Ajali River in Enugu, Nigeria
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36 Evaluation of Spatio-temporal Changes in Surface Water Quality and Their Suitability for Designated Uses, Mettur Reservoir, India
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37 Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate and Nitrate from Synthetic and Real Wastewater by Meretrix lusoria as an Efficient and Novel Material
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38 Water Quality Characterization of Marusudar River in Chenab Sub-Basin of North-Western Himalaya Using Multivariate Statistical Methods
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39 Ganga river water quality assessment using combined approaches: physico-chemical parameters and cyanobacterial toxicity detection with special reference to microcystins and molecular characterization of microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes carrying cyanobac
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40 Adsorption of fluoride in aqueous solutions using saline water algae (Rhodophyta sp.): an insight into isotherm, kinetics, thermodynamics and optimization studies
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41 Multifunctional water treatment system for oil and gas-produced water
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42 Heavy Metals in Blanket Dam and Downstream Weirs, and the Associated Risk to Human Health
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43 Natural Variation in Physicochemical Profiles and Bacterial Communities Associated with Aedes aegypti Breeding Sites and Larvae on Guadeloupe and French Guiana
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44 Evaluation of groundwater quality with health risk assessment of fluoride and nitrate in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India
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45 Valorization of waste potato peel as iron adsorbent and catalyst in photo-oxidation: a sustainable waste management strategy
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46 Water quality assessment of the Ganges River during COVID-19 lockdown
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47 Synthesis of a magnetically separable LDH-based S-scheme nano-heterojunction for the activation of peroxymonosulfate towards the efficient visible-light photodegradation of diethyl phthalate
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48 Trace-Level Humidity Sensing from Commercial Organic Solvents and Food Products by an AIE/ESIPT-Triggered Piezochromic Luminogen and ppb-Level “OFF–ON–OFF” Sensing of Cu2+: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Outcome
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49 A novel voltammetric method for the sensitive and selective determination of carbonate or bicarbonate ions by an azomethine-H probe
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50 The single-tube quantitative rapid detection of coliform bacteria based on enzyme-specific technology
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51 Protection of lead-induced cytotoxicity using paramagnetic nickel–insulin quantum clusters
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52 Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of zinc from environmental water samples using ionic liquid
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53 Development of sustainable and ecofriendly metal ion scavenger for adsorbing Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ ions from the aqueous phase
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54 Ionic flux and geological release of fluoride in groundwater sources of a semi-arid tropical region in south India
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55 Simple ultrasound-heating process for preparation of magnetite-sulphur adsorbent for rapid uptake of phosphate ion in solution
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56 Pseudomonas putida APRRJVITS11 as a potent tool in chromium (VI) removal from effluent wastewater
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57 Efficient and additive-free synthesis of morphology variant iron oxyhydroxide nanostructures for phosphate adsorption application
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58 Cloud based analysis of Drinking Water quality parameters
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59 Potential of rainwater harvesting in Cimahi, West Java, Indonesia
B H Pirngadi, A D Karlina, D Syarifudin
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60 Water Quality Assessment – River Trail Project of Asasi, UiTM Dengkil
N Kasmuri, N A Ismail, N Zaini, S Abdullah, Z Yaacob
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61 Dual Mode Smartphone Based Sensing for Accurate Estimation of Sulphate and Chloride in Water
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62 Assessment of surface waters and pollution impacts in Southern Ghana
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63 Adsorptive removal of P(V) and Cr(VI) by calcined Zn-Al-Fe ternary LDHs
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64 Toxic Metals (As, Cd, Ni, Pb) Impact in the Most Common Medicinal Plant (Mentha piperita)
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65 A Colorimetric Dip Strip Assay for Detection of Low Concentrations of Phosphate in Seawater
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66 Quality Assessment of Bottled and Unbottled Drinking Water in Bangladesh
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67 Multi-Scale Analysis of the Dependence of Water Quality on Land Use Using Linear and Mixed Models
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68 Efficiency of the Single and Dual Media Filters for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Water in Ekbatan and Shahid Beheshti Water Treatment Plants in city of Hamedan
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69 Study on isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of adsorption of crystal violet dye by calcium oxide modified fly ash
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70 A First Step towards Determining the Ionic Content in Water with an Integrated Optofluidic Chip Based on Near-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
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71 A Comparative Study between Bimetallic [email protected] Nanoparticles with Iron and Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized Using a Bioflocculant: Their Applications and Biosafety
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72 Physicochemical and microbiological quality of tanker waters in Bengaluru urban for safe water supply
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73 Adaptive Water Sampling Device for Aerial Robots
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74 Monitoring Environmental Parameters with Oil and Gas Developments in the Permian Basin, USA
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75 Adsorptive Removal of Se(IV) by Citrus Peels: Effect of Adsorbent Entrapment in Calcium Alginate Beads
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76 Impact of Land-use and Land-cover Change on Groundwater Quality and Quantity in the Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India: A Remote Sensing and GIS approach
K C Mondal, K G Rathod, H M Joshi, H S Mandal, Rubia Khan, Kushagra Rajendra, Y K Mawale, K Priya, D C Jhariya
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77 Ecological status of a freshwater tectonic lake of the indo-burmese province: Implications for livelihood development
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78 An Overview of River Side Pollutants and their Effects on Physico-Chemical Changes in Water Quality of River Halda, Bangladesh
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79 Easy removal of nitrate and phosphate anions from water by low cost chitosan and activated charcoal
Katlakanti Mohan Reddy, Samarth Pratap Singh
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80 The optimum range of ocean and freshwater quality parameters
Bhuyan Md. Simul, Mojumder Istiak Ahamed, Das Monika
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81 Nanoparticles impact in biomedical waste management
Pooja M Patil, Raghvendra A Bohara
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82 Quality assessment of the noncarbonated-bottled drinking water: comparison of their treatment techniques
Muhammad Altaf Nazir, Abdullah Yasar, Muhammad Aswad Bashir, Sajid Hussain Siyal, Tayyaba Najam, Muhammad Sufyan Javed, Khalil Ahmad, Shahid Hussain, Saima Anjum, Ejaz Hussain, Syed Shoaib Ahmad Shah, Aziz Ur Rehman
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83 Bio-inspired perylene diimide coated super paramagnetic nanoparticles for the effective and efficient removal of lead(ii) from aqueous medium
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84 Functional biobased hydrogels for the removal of aqueous hazardous pollutants: current status, challenges, and future perspectives
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85 Bioanode-Assisted Removal of Hg 2+ at the Cathode of Microbial Fuel Cells
Rohit Kumar, Sukrampal Yadav, Sunil A. Patil
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86 8-Hydroxyjulolidine aldimine as a fluorescent sensor for the dual detection of Al3+ and Mg2+
Waroton Paisuwan, Thanaphong Lertpiriyasakulkit, Vithaya Ruangpornvisuti, Mongkol Sukwattanasinitt, Anawat Ajavakom
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87 Combining Chemometrics and Sensors: Toward New Applications in Monitoring and Environmental Analysis
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88 Trophic-Level Interactive Effects of Phosphorus Availability on the Toxicities of Cadmium, Arsenic, and Their Binary Mixture in Media-Exposed Scenedesmus acutus and Media and Dietary-Exposed Daphnia pulex
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89 An Investigation on Sudden Change in Water Quality of Brahmaputra River Using Remote Sensing and GIS
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90 An overview of nanoscale materials on the removal of wastewater contaminants
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91 Assessment of potability of spring water and its health implication in a hilly village of Uttarakhand, India
Jaspal Singh Chauhan, Tarun Badwal, Neha Badola
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92 Remediation of heavy metals (Cr, Zn) using physical, chemical and biological methods: a novel approach
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93 Watershed land use, surface water vulnerability and public health risks of two urban rivers, Ado-Ekiti, South-West Nigeria
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94 Combined efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera leaves extract as a potential coagulant in ground water treatment
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95 Mobility and speciation of mercury in soils from a mining zone in Villa Hidalgo, SLP, Mexico: A preliminary risk assessment
G.E. Quintanilla-Villanueva, M. Villanueva-Rodríguez, J.L. Guzmán-Mar, D.E. Torres-Gaytan, A. Hernández-Ramírez, G. Orozco-Rivera, L. Hinojosa-Reyes
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96 Spatial and sensitivity analysis of integrated groundwater quality index towards irrigational suitability investigation
Mobarok Hossain, Pulak Kumar Patra, Syeda Nurunnesa Begum, Chowdhury Habibur Rahaman
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97 Fluorescent, colourimetric, and ratiometric probes based on diverse fluorophore motifs for mercuric(II) ion (Hg2+) sensing: highlights from 2011 to 2019
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98 A short review on recent progress in mesoporous silicas for the removal of metal ions from water
Sushilkumar A. Jadhav, Vinay S. Patil, Preeti S. Shinde, Saurabh S. Thoravat, Pramod S. Patil
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99 Synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites by complexation method and their application as label-free chemo probe for detection of mercury ions
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100 (S)-4-(4-aminobenzyl)-2-oxazolidinone based 2-azetidinones for antimicrobial application and luminescent sensing of divalent metal cations
Shyamal Baruah, Merangmenla Aier, Amrit Puzari
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry. 2020; 57(6): 2498
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101 A Quick Responsive Chitosan-Oxine Based Thin Film to Recognize and Remove Zn 2+ Ions from Potable Water
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ChemistrySelect. 2020; 5(36): 11096
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102 Elucidation of the potential of Moringa oleifera leaves extract as a novel alternate to the chemical coagulant in water treatment process
Pratibha Pandey, Fahad Khan, Rashmi Mishra, Sujeet Kumar Singh
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103 Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in New Calabar River
Emmanuel I. Uwah, Ima B. Nwoke, Edu J. Inam, Iboroakam E. Udosen, Essien D. Udosen
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2020; 105(2): 317
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104 Facilitated decrease of anions and cations in influent and effluent of sewage treatment plant by vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides): the uptake of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate
Mohsen Gholipour, Pooyan Mehrabanjoubani, Ahmad Abdolzadeh, Mostafa Raghimi, Seyedmohammad Seyedkhademi, Ehsan Karimi, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour
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105 Enhanced arsenic removal from water by a bimetallic material ZrOx-FeOx with high OH density
Esmeralda Vences-Alvarez, Alejandro Lopez-Valdivieso, Luis F. Cházaro-Ruíz, Horacio Flores-Zuñiga, Jose Rene Rangel-Mendez
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106 Exogenous supplementation of melatonin alters representative organic acids and enzymes of respiratory cycle as well as sugar metabolism during arsenic stress in two contrasting indica rice cultivars
Santanu Samanta, Ankur Singh, Aditya Banerjee, Aryadeep Roychoudhury
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107 Fabrication of the polysulfone-based composite ultrafiltration membranes for the adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from their contaminated aqueous solutions
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108 Novel phenothiazine-based fast-responsive colori/fluorimetric sensor for highly sensitive, selective and reversible detection of Cu2+ in real water samples and its application as an efficient solid-state sensor
Junjie Wang, Qingfen Niu, Tao Wei, Tianduo Li, Tingting Hu, Jianbin Chen, Xuyang Qin, Qingxin Yang, Lan Yang
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109 Curcumin nanoemulsion as a biocompatible medium to study the metal ion imbalance in a biological system
Raj Kumar, Shivani Uppal, Khushwinder Kaur, S.K. Mehta
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110 Preparation of activated carbon using fruit, paper and clothing wastes for wastewater treatment
Rakib Mustafa, Eylem Asmatulu
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111 Nitrate-N-mediated toxicological responses of Scenedesmus acutus and Daphnia pulex to cadmium, arsenic and their binary mixture (Cd/Asmix) at environmentally relevant concentrations
Olushola M. Awoyemi, Seenivasan Subbiah, Anahi Velazquez, Kelsey N. Thompson, Angela L. Peace, Gregory D. Mayer
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112 Near-IR aza-BODIPY-based probe for the selective simultaneous detection of Cu2+ in aqueous buffer solutions and its application in biological samples
Panida Praikaew, Thantip Roongcharoen, Adisri Charoenpanich, Nawee Kungwan, Nantanit Wanichacheva
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2020; 400: 112641
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113 An overview of plant-based interventions to ameliorate arsenic toxicity
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