Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
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   2009| May-August  | Volume 13 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 20, 2009

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The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health
Ross G Cooper, Adrian P Harrison
May-August 2009, 13(2):65-76
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55122  PMID:20386622
Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9%) for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.
  12,503 366 20
Healthy worker effect phenomenon
Divyang Shah
May-August 2009, 13(2):77-79
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55123  PMID:20386623
The Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) phenomenon has been under debate since some years. Some epidemiologists regard HWE as an ordinary method problem while others consider it a field of science by itself. This article gives definitions of HWE explained with historical background; discusses factors affecting it and suggests methods to minimize problems associated with it.
  10,860 507 118
Role of youth in combating climate change
Harshal T Pandve, Poonam R Deshmukh, Rahul T Pandve, Neha R Patil
May-August 2009, 13(2):105-105
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55130  PMID:20386630
  10,433 525 4
Occupational health risks of barbers and coiffeurs in Izmir
Aliye Mandiracioglu, Sukran Kose, Ayhan Gozaydin, Melda Turken, Lutfiye Kuzucu
May-August 2009, 13(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55128  PMID:20386627
The objective of this study was to examine self-reported occupational health risks and health complaints of barbers and hairdressers. A total of 1284 individuals from 300 workplaces in Izmir participated in this study. The workers completed the questionnaires during their training in occupational health. Self-reported symptoms were allergy: 35% and musculoskeletal symptoms: 32%. The frequency of allergy complaints was found to be significantly higher in older individuals and in women. Allergic complaints were more frequent in i) those having history of allergy, ii) in the group where the use of protective clothing and gloves was lower, iii) in smokers and in those who found ventilation in the workplace to be inadequate. Only 41.2% reported that they used gloves and 15.2% reported the use of protective clothing within the last month. It appears that poor occupational factors in barbers' salons and exposure to hairdressing chemicals bring about health problems of the hairdressers.
  7,691 437 11
Employee participation in achieving industrial safety and health - Vision 2020
H Mahadevan
May-August 2009, 13(2):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55120  PMID:20386620
  6,800 909 -
Establishing a model workplace tobacco cessation program in India
Gauravi A Mishra, Surendra S Shastri, Pallavi A Uplap, Parishi V Majmudar, Pallavi S Rane, Subhadra D Gupta
May-August 2009, 13(2):97-103
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55129  PMID:20386628
Background: Tobacco use is highly prevalent and culturally accepted in rural Maharashtra, India. Aims: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding tobacco consumption, identify reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco use, identify prevalence of tobacco consumption and its relation with different precancerous lesions, provide professional help for quitting tobacco, and develop local manpower for tobacco cessation activities. Settings, Design, Methods and Material: The present study was conducted for one year in a chemical industrial unit in Ratnagiri district. All employees (104) were interviewed and screened for oral neoplasia. Their socio-demographic features, habits, awareness levels etc. were recorded. Active intervention in the form of awareness lectures, focus group discussions, one-to-one counseling and, if needed, pharmacotherapy was offered to the tobacco users. Results: All employees actively participated in the program. Overall, 48.08% of the employees were found to use tobacco, among which the smokeless forms were predominant. Peer pressure and pleasure were the main reasons for initiation of tobacco consumption, and the belief that, though injurious, it would not harm them, avoiding physical discomfort on quitting and relieving stress were important factors for continuation of the habit. Employees had poor knowledge regarding the ill-effects of tobacco. 40% of tobacco users had oral precancerous lesions, which were predominant in employees consuming smokeless forms of tobacco. Conclusions: Identifying reasons for initiation and continuation of tobacco consumption along with baseline assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding tobacco use, are important in formulating strategies for a comprehensive workplace tobacco cessation program.
  7,037 502 4
Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy
Claudio Bianchi, Tommaso Bianchi
May-August 2009, 13(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55124  PMID:20386624
This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.
  6,734 299 12
Risk assessment of chronic poisoning among Indian metallic miners
Sarang V Dhatrak, Subroto S Nandi
May-August 2009, 13(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55121  PMID:20386621
The estimated average daily employment in the Indian mining sector is 5,60,000, which comprises 87% in the public sector and 13% in the private sector, of which around 70,000 are working in metallic mines. The mine workers are exposed to dust of various potentially toxic substances. The common toxicants present in the mining environment are lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, aluminium, fluoride, arsenic, etc. Inhalation and absorption through the skin are common routes of exposure. Low-dose chronic exposure of toxic substances results in the accumulation of toxicants in the body. Hence, there is a need to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners for these toxicants.
  6,106 663 12
Evaluation of skin diseases and disorders in photographers
MS Attarchi, S Mohammadi, E Asghari
May-August 2009, 13(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55126  PMID:20386626
Occupational skin disease is very common and important among photographers due to the chemical substances used in photographic processes. In this cross-sectional study, 100 photographers were asked about their occupational exposures in their workplace. Physical examinations were done to find skin diseases and information about demographic factors and history of other skin diseases was collected via a questionnaire. This study examined 100 people, 86 men and 14 women; 37% of these 100 subjects were found to suffer from skin diseases and disorders: 24% contact dermatitis, 2% leukoderma, 3% nail hyperpigmentation. Less than half of these subjects (43%) were found to be working with nonmechanized (manual) printers whereas the other 57% worked with computerized printers. Employees working with nonmechanized printers were found to have a statistically meaningful increase in skin diseases compared with subjects who were working with computerized printers (Odds ratio = 7.4, 95% CI = 2.59-21.92, P = 0.001). Some (41%) of these subjects did not use gloves and were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of skin diseases compared with the ones who used gloves (Odds ratio = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.72-13.21, P value = 0.002). Generally, it seems that adequate ventilation and protective gloves are necessary for decreasing the prevalence of occupational skin diseases among photographers. Also, educating the photographers about the risks of the chemical substances in their workplace is very important.
  5,426 686 -
Rapid method for the determination of some organophosphorus insecticides in a small amount of serum in emergency and occupational toxicology cases
Bhoopendra Singh, TD Dogra
May-August 2009, 13(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55125  PMID:20386625
A simple and rapid method is described for the estimation of some organophosphorus insecticides in the serum of occupationally exposed persons. The compounds are extracted with a mixture of acetone and diethyl ether (1:1 v/v) in acidic medium and the extraction residue is analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection method. Linearity was acceptable over concentrations from 0.25 to 4.0 g/mL. The method percentile recovery for the six different organophosphorus insecticides was 86.3% for phorate, 78.3% for dimethoate, 82.3% for malathion, 79.4% for chlorpyrifos, 80.2% for diazinon, and 68.5% for ethion at the g/mL level. Serum samples of nine workers who had been occupationally exposed to malathion in an insecticide manufacturing factory, were analyzed and malathion was found at low levels in all the samples.
  5,411 447 3
Issues related to sanitation failure in India and future perspective
S Ganesh Kumar, S Jayarama
May-August 2009, 13(2):104-104
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.55131  PMID:20386629
  4,143 329 4
Occupational safety and health for development
GK Kulkarni
May-August 2009, 13(2):106-106
  2,798 313 -