Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
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   2011| May-August  | Volume 15 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 29, 2011

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Musculoskeletal pain and its associated risk factors in residents of national capital region
V Bihari, C Kesavachandran, BS Pangtey, AK Srivastava, N Mathur
May-August 2011, 15(2):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90375  PMID:22223951
Background: Musculoskeletal (MS) pain is responsible for poor quality of life and decreased productivity. Objective information about the burden of musculoskeletal disorders among the general community in India is scanty, and the few reports that exist are based on a small sample size. Materials and Methods: This paper examines the issue of MS pain and its associated risk factors in a cross-sectional study of 2086 subjects from National Capital Region (NCR). Results: Overall prevalence of MS pain was found to be 25.9%. Pain was found to be more frequent among females (31.3%) as compared with males (20.9%). Significant association of pain in joints/limbs/knee/lower legs with obesity (OR = 2.1, P < 0.001) and high body fat (OR = 2.2, P < 0.001) was established. More than 50% of the subjects complained of backache. Conclusions: Our findings confirm that MS pain is a significant burden of disease among the residents of NCR. Women and subjects doing heavy work load, like agriculture and dairy farming, constitute the chief demographic groups. It is high time that a policy is framed to reduce this load of sickness.
  12 6,604 238
Smoking ban and indoor air quality in restaurants in Mumbai, India
Lalit J Raute, Prakash C Gupta, Mangesh S Pednekar
May-August 2011, 15(2):68-72
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90377  PMID:22223953
Background: Second-hand smoke contains several toxic chemicals that are known to pollute the air and harm people's health. In India, smoking in public places has been prohibited since October 2008 as a way to reduce second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. The purpose of the present study was to assess the implementation of smoke-free policies and its impact on indoor air quality by measuring the PM 2.5 levels in bars and restaurants, restaurants, country liquor bars, hookah restaurants and pubs in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: Air quality measurements at 50 venues were conducted by using a "SIDEPAK™ AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor" during April to May 2009. Average concentration of PM 2.5 (μg/m 3 ) particles was calculated separately for each venue. Results: Smoking was observed in 36% of the surveyed venues during an hour of data collection. The PM 2.5 levels ranged from 16.97 to 1101.76 μg/m 3 . The average level of PM 2.5 among non-smoking venues was 97.19 μg/m 3 and among smoking venues was 363.04 μg/m 3 . Conclusion: Considerable scope for improvement in implementation of smoke-free policies exists. The PM 2.5 levels were exceedingly high in venues where smoking was observed.
  7 7,333 138
Some initiatives for promoting environmental sanitation in India
Harshal T Pandve, Kevin Fernandez, PS Chawla, Samir A Singru
May-August 2011, 15(2):76-77
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90379  PMID:22223955
  2 3,436 91
Occupational health practice: Need of the hour - training and accreditation
Xivananda Priolcar
May-August 2011, 15(2):51-51
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90373  PMID:22223949
  1 3,366 145
Environmental health impact assessment of national aluminum company, Orissa
Rajan R Patil
May-August 2011, 15(2):73-75
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90378  PMID:22223954
Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield.
  - 4,721 92
We are what we breathe!
Dilip Gude
May-August 2011, 15(2):78-78
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90381  PMID:22223956
  - 3,123 59
Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers
Hugo M de Oliveira, Gracilene P Dagostim, Arielle da Silva Mota, Priscila Tavares, Luiz A.Z.C da Rosa, Vanessa M de Andrade
May-August 2011, 15(2):52-58
Background: Thousands of chemical compounds are used in paint products, like pigments, extenders, binders, additives, and solvents (toluene, xylene, ketones, alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers). Paint manufacture workers are potentially exposed to the chemicals present in paint products although the patterns and levels of exposure to individual agents may differ from those of painters. The aim of the present study was to evaluate genome damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells of paint industry workers. Materials and Methods: Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline Comet assay in blood lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells, and the Micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. For the micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells, no significant difference was detected between the control and paint industry workers. Results: The Comet assay in epithelia buccal cells showed that the damage index (DI) and damage frequency (DF) observed in the exposed group were significantly higher relative to the control group ( P≤0.05). In the same way, the Comet assay data in peripheral blood leukocytes showed that both analysis parameters (DI and DF) were significantly greater than that for the control group ( P≤0.05). Conclusions: Chronic occupational exposure to paints may lead to a slightly increased risk of genetic damage among paint industry workers.
  - 8,836 261
Adaptation cost of diarrhea and malaria in 2030 for India
Sandhya K Ramakrishnan
May-August 2011, 15(2):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.90376  PMID:22223952
Background : Climate change is significant and an emerging threat to public health. The climate change-related health consequences of diarrheal diseases and malaria are projected to pose the largest risks to future populations. This study provides an initial estimate of the cost of intervention to cope with the health impacts of climate change in 2030 on diarrhea and malaria for India. Materials and Methods : The costs of treating diarrheal diseases and malaria in 2030 were estimated under three climate scenarios using: (1) the current numbers of cases; (2) the projected relative risks of these diseases in 2030; and (3) current treatment costs. The analysis assumed that the number of annual cases and costs of treatment would remain constant. There was limited consideration for population growth and socioeconomic development. Results : Underscenario assuming emissions reduction resulting in stabilization at 750 ppm CO 2 equivalent in 2210, the costs of treating diarrheal diseases and malaria were estimated to be between Rs. 3648 lakhs and Rs. 7787 lakhs. The Mitigation scenario results in fewer cases and lower investment needs than the BAU scenario. For the middle scenario, the annual needs are about Rs. 1036 lakhs per year, lower from Rs. 4684 lakhs down to Rs. 3648 lakhs. Should the high scenario occur, the annual investment needs are about Rs. 3901 lakhs lower from the BAU to the Mitigation scenario. Conclusion : The adaptation and mitigation can reduce sensitivity to climate change. The case for making public expenditures is strong on economic and moral grounds because the costs without interventions are much higher if we consider the relative risk of these diseases.
  - 3,804 104