Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine   Official publication of Indian Association of  0ccupational  Health  
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   2014| September-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 3  
    Online since December 12, 2014

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Prevalence and pattern of occupational injuries at workplace among welders in coastal south India
S Ganesh Kumar, A Dharanipriya
September-December 2014, 18(3):135-139
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146911  PMID:25598619
Background: Injuries among welders are an important health issue in metal industries at global level. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and pattern of injuries and its possible associated risk factors among welders. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 209 welders in metal industries of Puducherry, coastal south India. Data regarding all types of injuries during the past 1 year were collected by administering a pre-designed questionnaire. The various risk factors associated with injuries that include age, training before induction, experience, job duration, tobacco chewing, alcohol use and use of protective measures were assessed using standard questionnaire. The data was analyzed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Majority of subjects were aged between 20 and 40 years (160, 76.6%) and educated below 10 th standard (181, 86.6%). Mean number of injury was found to be 10.74 (SD = 5.74) in the preceding year. All of them had more than 2 injuries and 44% (92) of them had more than 10 injuries. All of them had abrasions and more than three fourths of them had each of lacerations, foreign body in the eye, flash burns and contusions. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 30 years (OR = 5.19), tobacco use (OR = 2.56), alcohol use (OR = 3.96) and institutional training (OR = 0.10) were the predictors associated with more than 10 injuries among welders. Conclusion: Injury among welders is an important health problem in this area. Strategies for strengthening institutional training for younger age groups may help in decreasing the burden of injuries.
  9 5,138 140
A study of morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers from an industry in central India
Manish J Biswas, Anil R Koparkar, Mohan P Joshi, Shilpa T Hajare, Nandakishor B Kasturwar
September-December 2014, 18(3):122-128
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146909  PMID:25598617
Background: Iron is the world's most commonly used metal and can usually be found with other elements in the form of steel. In this era of machines, it is the inevitable part in production of various materials like eyeglass frames, jet aircraft, the space shuttle, automobiles, and surgical instruments. Occupational factors make an important contribution to the global burden of disease, but the reliable data on occupational disease are much more difficult to obtain. Hence, the current study was carried out to find out the morbidity pattern among iron and steel workers Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. was carried out after obtaining permission from Institutional Ethics Committee in an iron and steel factory. Worker's detailed information regarding profile was taken in pretested questionnaire format after obtaining the informed written consent and explaining the purpose of study. Workers were also interviewed regarding their years of job, job satisfaction, usage of protective devices, and history of injuries during work. Worker's detailed general and systemic examination was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of morbidities among the workers was 60%. It was observed that commonest morbidity in the workers was lumbago (musculoskeletal pain), that is, 33.25%which was more in Group B (49.73%) than Group A (18.78%), followed by occupational dermatitis (27%) which more common in Group A (33.33%) than Group B (19.79%). It was seen that occupation-related morbidities were more prevalent in Group A, i.e. Exposed group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It was observed that occupation-related morbidities were more common in exposed group (EG) than that of nonexposed group (NEG) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001).
  5 3,906 182
An epidemiologic study of occupational stress factors in Mumbai police personnel
Balaji D Almale, Ashok J Vankudre, Seema S Bansode-Gokhe, Vrushali K Pawar
September-December 2014, 18(3):109-112
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146906  PMID:25598614
Introduction: Occupational stress is common to each and every organization at various levels of hierarchy. The police organization is no exception to this. Rather policing is widely recognized as more stressful than any other occupation, nature of work, irregular duty hours, and many more factors, which can trigger stress. The present study was done to highlight some of these stressful factors in Mumbai police. Materials and Methods: Simple as well as systematic random sampling technique was adopted to get equal representation from each zone as well as region from Mumbai police. Occupational stress index (OSI) questionnaire was prepared, pilot tested, and validated for screening stress. Result: We screened 276 policemen for occupational stress. Seventy-three percent of them were in the 30-50 years age group, and most of them (49%) studied up to H.S.C. Ninety-one percent were married and 56% had reported duty hours 12-16 h/day. Seventy-one percent were addicted to any of the substance. After screening we found 73% moderately stressed, whereas 18% highly stressed policemen. Sociodemographic factors which were age group (50-58 years), duration of service in years (>25 years), duration of duty hours (>16 h/day), addiction habits, and number of monthly holidays (no holiday). We found role ambiguity, under participation, role overload, strenuous working condition, and unprofitability as predominant scales in OSI. So prevention as well as management of stress in policemen is the necessity of the current situation. This stress can be managed at organizational level by adopting right techniques, whereas at individual level by habituating right behavior and attitude.
  4 4,142 159
Perceived stress and stressors among house officers
Maroof Hassan, Talal Hussain, Syed Mustajab Ahmed, Tayyab Raza Fraz, Zoha Rehmat
September-December 2014, 18(3):145-149
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146914  PMID:25598621
Background: House officers training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to doctors. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress and sources of stress among house officers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was carried out among house officers working in Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan, during November and December, 2013. Perceived stress was assessed using perceived stress scale. A 15-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and was graded by Likert scale (1 = very low, 5 = very high). To calculate the difference of mean for stressors by gender of house officers, t-test with 95% confidence interval was used. Results: The overall response rate was 81.5% (269 out of 330). One hundred twenty-nine (47.9%) were found to be under stress of whom 32 (24.8%) were males and 97 (75.2%) were females. Top five stressors reported by house officers were night calls, workload, time pressure, working alone, and coping with diagnostic uncertainty. Significant differences for stressors by gender were found for night calls (P < 0.05), unrealistically high expectation by others (P < 0.05), financial issues (P < 0.05), and lack of senior support (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Majority of house officers working in Civil Hospital, Karachi, and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, were under high level of stress. Therefore, immediate steps should be taken for control of stress and its management.
  2 4,504 73
Job satisfaction, job stress and psychosomatic health problems in software professionals in India
Sahukar Madhura, Pailoor Subramanya, Pradhan Balaram
September-December 2014, 18(3):153-161
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146917  PMID:25598623
This questionnaire based study investigates correlation between job satisfaction, job stress and psychosomatic health in Indian software professionals. Also, examines how yoga practicing Indian software professionals cope up with stress and psychosomatic health problems. The sample consisted of yoga practicing and non-yoga practicing Indian software professionals working in India. The findings of this study have shown that there is significant correlation among job satisfaction, job stress and health. In Yoga practitioners job satisfaction is not significantly related to Psychosomatic health whereas in non-yoga group Psychosomatic Health symptoms showed significant relationship with Job satisfaction.
  1 5,666 158
Squamous cell carcinoma of the scrotum - still an occupational hazard
Aparajita Mitra, PN Agarwal, Rajdeep Singh, Sushant Verma, Vaishali Srivastava, Anmol Chugh, Varun Jain
September-December 2014, 18(3):150-152
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146916  PMID:25598622
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the scrotum was one of the first occupational diseases to be described, and acquired its eponym from Sir Percivall Pott. The condition has now become rare owing to the establishment of industrial health norms. A 45-year-old male with a history of long-term exposure to petrochemicals presented to our institution with a scrotal lesion and underwent wide-local excision of the same. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated SCC involving the epididymis. Treatment options included excision with ilio-inguinal bloc dissection (in the event of lymphadenopathy) with subsequent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Tumors following occupational exposure thus continue to contribute to the rapidly decreasing incidence of scrotal carcinoma.
  1 3,039 50
Does occupational health nursing exist in India?
Rajnarayan R Tiwari, Anjali Sharma, Sanjay P Zodpey, Shobha M Khandare
September-December 2014, 18(3):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146907  PMID:25598615
Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN) is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3-4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need-supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower.
  1 3,228 94
Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations
Neeraja Telaprolu, Sharada Devi Anne
September-December 2014, 18(3):129-134
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146910  PMID:25598618
Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations.
  1 2,962 92
Health profile of women ragpicker members of a nongovernmental organization in Mumbai, India
Pallavi A Uplap, Kamaxi Bhate
September-December 2014, 18(3):140-144
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146912  PMID:25598620
Background: In India, ragpickers form the base of hierarchy of informal sector of the solid waste management. Assessment of general and gender specific health of women is conducted in this study in view of dearth of published evidence. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted from October 2003 to April 2005 in Mumbai, at the field office of a nongovernmental organization working for women ragpickers. By the systematic random sampling 168 women ragpickers were selected. Both general and gender-specific health needs of this socially and occupationally marginalized group, including health seeking behavior were explored in this study. Fourteen participants were trained as health volunteers to create awareness in the local community. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11.0 software program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results: Marriage at young age, multiple pregnancies, low preference toward temporary methods of contraception, high addiction were prevalent in this lower socioeconomic young workforce. Morbidity was statistically significant among ragpickers who collected rags along dumpsite than street side and door to door waste collectors (χ2 = 27.8; df = 2; P < 0.001 significant). A need-based training program helped to improve knowledge of the participants [z = 12.7 (P < 0.05)]. Conclusions: Unfulfilled health needs of this underprivileged workforce who contributes to the ecology and economy of the city need to be addressed. Sensitization of both general public and government is essential to legitimize this occupation. This in turn may help to alleviate poverty and environmental degradation; characteristic of rapid and unplanned urbanization in India.
  1 4,608 108
Industrial hygiene: A global perspective
GS Swaminathan
September-December 2014, 18(3):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146904  PMID:25598612
  - 3,101 128
A comment on "Occupational hazard exposure and general health profile of welders in rural Delhi"
Kanica Kaushal
September-December 2014, 18(3):162-162
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146918  PMID:25598624
  - 2,138 45
Cadmium toxicity in silversmith: Safety is never too much!
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Chidambaram Ananth, Sandeep B Gore, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
September-December 2014, 18(3):163-163
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146919  PMID:25598625
  - 2,074 44
Occupational kidney disease: Is exposure to ammonium nitrate a risk factor?
Mohit Mathur, Pankaj Beniwal, Dharmendra Prasad, Vinay Malhotra
September-December 2014, 18(3):164-165
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146920  PMID:25598626
  - 2,493 51
A study of respiratory function among the workers engaged in ginning processes
Asim Saha, Pankaj B Doctor, Lakho J Bhagia, Prabhat K Majumdar, Bhupendra D Patel
September-December 2014, 18(3):118-121
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146908  PMID:25598616
Background: Known respiratory health effects of exposure to cotton dust are mainly altered pulmonary function findings and symptom of chest tightness. A number of studies have been carried out all over the world to enumerate and evaluate the health effects of cotton dust exposed workers in different processes. However, such studies carried out in ginning industry especially in Indian context are scanty. Objectives: This study was initiated to explore occupational and morbidity details and respiratory functional status of the exposed workers as well as to investigate across the working shift pulmonary function changes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including workers from ginning units where principal exposure is from cotton dust. All the workers of the selected ginning units were subjected to an interview with a predesigned questionnaire to collect occupational and medical history, clinical examination and pulmonary function test. Results: In this present study, no cross-shift significant change in relation to PEFR and FEV 1 values is observed. However, chronic effect on lung function is observed in a few subjects and declining trend of values was observed with increasing job duration as well as age of workers and among smokers. Other health problems among these subjects were backache and joint pain. Conclusions: Studies on cotton textile workers have shown both cross-shift and chronic decline of values. In this study on ginning workers, chronic effect only is observed. This difference of observation may be explained by different nature of exposure in case of ginning. This study recommends regular periodic clinical examination, lung function test and monitoring of dust, gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins in such workplaces.
  - 3,285 100
Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario
Renu Rajguru
September-December 2014, 18(3):105-108
DOI:10.4103/0019-5278.146905  PMID:25598613
Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, "Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft." The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies.
  - 4,166 63