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   2021| October-December  | Volume 25 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 31, 2021

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Musculoskeletal pain and risk factors associated with smartphone use in university students
Prachita P Walankar, Manasi Kemkar, Aniket Govekar, Agasthya Dhanwada
October-December 2021, 25(4):220-224
Background: Smartphone has become a very popular necessity among students. An individual has to look at their phone's small monitor and perform repetitive movements in an awkward posture for a prolonged duration. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and associated risk factors in university students because of smartphone usage. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 2000 university students using a semi-structured questionnaire comprising demographic profile, smartphone usage characteristics, presence of musculoskeletal pain, and specific area of pain according to the body region. Results: Among the 2000 students, 44.05% reported musculoskeletal pain. The most common sites of pain were the neck (34.2%), thumb (17.45%), lower back (16.7%), and elbow (16.6%). There was an association between prevalence of musculoskeletal pain with the size of the smartphone (P = 0.005), the predominant purpose of smartphone usage (P = 0.002), position preferred while using smartphone (P = 0.000), and the level at which smartphone is held during usage (P = 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of musculoskeletal pain was the size of the smartphone. Conclusion: The study reported that the prevalence of pain in smartphone users is high with common sites being neck, thumb, and lower back region. Also, the size of the smartphone had a significant association with musculoskeletal pain.
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Design, implementation, and evaluation of industrial ventilation systems and filtration for silica dust emissions from a mineral processing company
Zahra Rahimi, Farshid Ghorbani-Shahna, Abdulrahman Bahrami
October-December 2021, 25(4):192-197
Objective: Silicosis as an incurable occupational disease is common in industries and processes that contain silica dust. Since engineering controls can reduce the risk of silicosis, the goal of this study was to design, implement and evaluate industrial ventilation systems and filtration for silica dust, which is emitted from hydrocone crusher and screener units in a mineral processing company. Methods: In this project, local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system was designed and installed using the standard and valid guidelines. The dust concentration was measured in two stages before and after installation of the ventilation system in the workplace, silica emission sources and also in the workers' inhalation area. Finally, the efficiency of the system was determined. Results: The efficiency of LEV system in reducing workplace dust concentration and dust emission sources was 79.8% and 84.92%respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of system in reducing the Respirable Crystalline Silica (RCS) at the worker's inhalation area was 92.13%. The collection efficiency of filtration system for total particles was 99.67 %. Conclusion: The results indicate that with designation and installation of the local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and also installation of bag filter to collect dust, the concentration of dust in the workplace and in the inhalation area of workers has decreased significantly. As a result, this system can be used to control dust in similar industries.
  1,832 66 -
Non-communicable diseases and mental health disorders in indian workplaces: 'elephant in the room' or 'future of occupational health practice'
Gautham M Sukumar, Bobby Joseph
October-December 2021, 25(4):189-191
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Assessment of hypoxia and physiological stress evinced by usage of n95 masks among frontline dental healthcare workers in a humid western coastal region of India-A repeated measure observational study
Harsh U Manerkar, Aradhana Nagarsekar, Ridhima B Gaunkar, Vikas Dhupar, Manisha Khorate
October-December 2021, 25(4):209-214
Aim: To assess the oxygen saturation in DHCWs using N95 and 3 ply surgical masks and determine the presence of any other subjective discomfort in them. Settings and Design: A repeated measure observational study conducted at the Tertiary Care Dental Institute situated in Goa, a western coastal region of India recording humid conditions year around. Methods and Material: Participants constituted 60 frontline DHCWs wearing N95 masks and 60 DHCWs working in non-clinical setting wearing surgical masks. After completion of a self-administered questionnaire their oxygen saturation and pulse rate were monitored at baseline, 60mins and 120mins using pulse oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Mann Whitney u test compared oxygen saturation between the two groups. Friedmann and Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni correction computed differences within group at various time intervals. Binary logistic and linear regression was used to compare the study variables with outcome measure. p value was set at < 0.05. Results and Conclusion: Oxygen saturation reported a significant drop post one hour of wearing N95 masks which increased in the second hour. Prolonged use of N95 mask in humid environment adds to the body's physiological burden or perceptions of discomfort and exertion. Efforts need to be taken to address this for better compliance to the use of these protective gears.
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Relation of work stressors and work-related MSDs among Indian heavy vehicle drivers
Ravinder Kumar, Rohit Sharma, Vikas Kumar, Abid Ali Khan
October-December 2021, 25(4):198-203
Aims: The aim of the study was to identify the relation of work stressors and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) among the heavy vehicle drivers. Methods and Material: The study involved 154 bus drivers and 161 truck drivers of India. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the physical and psychosocial work stresses, job diagnostics, driving hazards, physical environment, and WRMSDs. Statistical Analysis Used: The odds ratios (OR) and development percentage of the test measurements were calculated in the descriptive statistics. The binary logistic regression and Pearson correlation test were used for the data analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that the WRMSDs among the truck drivers were higher than those among the bus drivers. The bus drivers were more likely to develop pain in their arms, while the truck drivers were more likely to suffer from neck, shoulders, legs, lower back, and upper back pain. Results from statistical analysis indicated that age, driving hours, physical fatigue, vehicle design, domestic pressure, and growth opportunities had a significant impact on the development of WRMSDs in the bus drivers. While, in the case of truck drivers, it was found that driving hours, tenure, vibration, physical fatigue, mental overload, and job dissatisfaction were significant. Conclusions: The study concludes that the work stressors are associated with different types of MSDs, and the level of MSDs differs significantly between the bus and truck drivers.
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Corrective exercises or ergonomic principles for workers with low back pain
Alireza Safaeian, Armindokht Shahsanai, Farzaneh Kiyany
October-December 2021, 25(4):204-208
Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) are considered the main cause of occupational diseases. Health care workers, nursing assistants, and service forces that perform manual labor are the most vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders, especially low back pain, due to the nature of their jobs. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of corrective exercise training to ergonomic principles training on low back pain in nursing assistants and service forces. Methods: A nonrandomized clinical trial study was done on 75 staff (nursing assistants and service forces) with low back pain. The participants were divided into three groups: corrective exercise training, ergonomic principles training, and control group. Pain intensity and disability questionnaires were completed before and after 8 weeks of intervention by each group and analyzed. Results: The mean intensity of pain after intervention in corrective exercises group (3.8 ± 1.5) was markedly less than the ergonomic group (4.7 ± 1.4) and control group (5.5 ± 1.7) (P = 0.001). The mean disability score after intervention in the corrective exercises group (17.3 ± 9.6) was significantly less than the ergonomic group (21.8 ± 12.6) and control group (25.3 ± 11.2) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: While corrective exercises training and ergonomic principles training both have a significant effect on reducing the severity of pain and disability caused by low back pain, corrective exercises training is more effective than ergonomic principle training.
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Living and working conditions of female domestic workers in Pune City
Aarati B Pokale, Jayashree S Gothankar, Prasad D Pore
October-December 2021, 25(4):215-219
Context: Female domestic workers (FDWs) comprise a significant part of the global workforce in informal sector. Nature of their workplace is such that the work goes unaccounted for in terms of employment policies or legislation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess socio-demographic and occupational profile of FDWs. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in one ward of each of the five geographical zones of Pune city. Domestic workers employed in randomly selected residential societies therein were included in the study. Data collected by interview technique during house visit and general examination done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS 25.0 USA statistical software. Percentage, mean, and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Of the 573 FDWs, 62% were between 20 and 40 years, and 35% were educated up to middle school. Three-fourths were currently married. Fifty-one were sole breadwinners. Most FDWs had their own house with electricity and water supply. Almost half had been employed for 5–10 years, working in 3–4 households. Approximately 50% earned between Rs. 4000–8000 per month. Maximum received annual bonus. Conclusions: Working and living conditions of these FDWs are not as pitiful as depicted in previous studies. However, benefits accorded to the formal sector workers are lacking here like fixed days off, pension, and maternity leave.
  1,043 59 -
Tackling the roadblocks to COVID-19 vaccination in India - The need of the hour
Pranav Ish, Shreyash Agrawal, Kanishk Sinha
October-December 2021, 25(4):225-226
  944 55 -
Book review: A luxury called health
Bobby Joseph
October-December 2021, 25(4):227-228
  892 36 -